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B-hPD-1/hPD-L1/hTNFR2 mice
Strain Name C57BL/6-Pdcd1tm1(PDCD1)Cd274tm1(CD274)Tnfrsf1btm1(TNFRSF1B)/Bcgen Common Name  B-hPD-1/hPD-L1/hTNFR2 mice
Background C57BL/6 Catalog number  130849
Related Genes 
PD-1 (Programmed death-1) 

CD274 (CD274 antigen)

TNFRSF1B (Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 1b)

Gene description


PD-1 (Programmed death-1) is mainly expressed on the surface of T cells and primary B cells. The two PD-1 ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, are widely expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). PD-L1 expression is favorable for tumorigenesis and growth, for induction of anti-tumor T cell apoptosis, and for escaping responses by the immune system. Inhibition of PD-1 binding to its ligand can result in tumor cells that are exposed to the killing version of the immune system, and thus is a target for cancer treatments. PD-L1 (Programmed cell death ligand-1), also known as B7-H1 and CD274, is mainly expressed in antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and activated T cells, and is one of the two ligands of PD-1. The interaction between PD1 and PD-L1 plays an important role in the negative regulation of the immune response. PD-L1 is highly expressed in a variety of solid tumors. PD-1 and PD-L1 interactions can reduce T cell activation and promote tumor immune escape. The PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway can be blocked and antitumor immune response can be restored by using by anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies to block the binding of PD1 to PD-L1. 

TNFR2 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, which also contains TNFRSF1A. This protein and TNF-receptor 1 form a heterocomplex that mediates the recruitment of two anti-apoptotic proteins, c-IAP1 and c-IAP2, which possess E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. The function of IAPs in TNF-receptor signaling is unknown, however, c-IAP1 is thought to potentiate TNF-induced apoptosis by the ubiquitination and degradation of TNF-receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), which mediates anti-apoptotic signals.


Phenotypic analysis


Protein expression analysis in T cells


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Strain specific PD-1, PD-L1 and TNFR2 expression analysis in homozygous B-hPD-1/hPD-L1/hTNFR2 (H/H) mice by flow cytometry. Splenocytes were collected from WT and homozygous B-hPD-1/hPD-L1/hTNFR2 (H/H) mice stimulated with anti-CD3ε in vivo, and analyzed by flow cytometry with species-specific anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1 and anti-TNFR2 antibody. Mouse PD-1, PD-L1 and TNFR2 were detectable in WT mice. Human PD-1, PD-L1 and TNFR2 were exclusively detectable in homozygous B-hPD-1/hPD-L1/hTNFR2 but not WT mice.


Protein expression analysis in Treg cells


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Strain specific PD-1, PD-L1 and TNFR2 expression analysis in homozygous B-hPD-1/hPD-L1/hTNFR2 (H/H) mice by flow cytometry. Splenocytes were collected from WT and homozygous B-hPD-1/hPD-L1/hTNFR2 (H/H) mice stimulated with anti-CD3ε in vivo, and analyzed by flow cytometry with species-specific anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1 and anti-TNFR2 antibody. Mouse PD-1, PD-L1 and TNFR2 were detectable in WT mice. Human PD-1, PD-L1 and TNFR2 were exclusively detectable in homozygous B-hPD-1/hPD-L1/hTNFR2 but not WT mice.


Analysis of blood leukocytes cell subpopulations in B-hPD-1/hPD-L1/hTNFR2 mice


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Analysis of spleen leukocytes cell subpopulations in B-hPD-1/hPD-L1/hTNFR2 mice


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Analysis of lymph node leukocytes cell subpopulations in B-hPD-1/hPD-L1/hTNFR2 mice


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Analysis of blood, spleen and lymph node leukocytes cell subpopulations in B-hPD-1/hPD-L1/hTNFR2 mice


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Analysis of blood, spleen and lymph node leukocytes cell subpopulations by FACS. Blood, spleen and lymph node leukocytes cell were isolated from female mice in the panel(n=3, 6 week-old). Flow cytometry analysis was performed to assess leukocyte subpopulations. Percent of T, B, NK, Granulocytes, Monocyte, DC and macrophage cells in homozygous B-hPD-1/hPD-L1/hTNFR2 mice were similar to those in the C57BL/6 mice, demonstrating that the humanized mouse does not change the overall development, differentiation or distribution of these cell types in blood, spleen and lymph node.


Analysis of blood, spleen, lymph node T cell subpopulations in B-hPD-1/hPD-L1/hTNFR2 mice


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Analysis of blood, spleen and lymph node T cell subpopulations in B-hPD-1/hPD-L1/hTNFR2 mice


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Analysis of blood, spleen and lymph node T cell subpopulations by FACS. Blood, spleen and lymph node leukocytes cell were isolated from female mice in the panel(n=3, 6 week-old). Flow cytometry analysis was performed to assess leukocyte subpopulations. Percent of CD4+T, CD8+T and Tre cells in homozygous B-hPD-1/hPD-L1/hTNFR2 mice were similar to those in the C57BL/6 mice, demonstrating that the humanized mouse does not change the overall development, differentiation or distribution of these cell types in blood, spleen and lymph node.


Blood routine test of B-hPD-1/hPD-L1/hTNFR2 mice


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Complete blood count (CBC). Blood from C57BL/6 and B-hPD-1/hPD-L1/hTNFR2 mice (n=5, 6 week-old, female) were collected and analyzed for CBC. Any measurement of B-hPD-1/hPD-L1/hTNFR2 mice in the panel were similar to C57BL/6, indicating that humanized mouse does not change blood cell composition and morphology. Values are expressed as mean ± SEM.


Blood chemistry of B-hPD-1/hPD-L1/hTNFR2 mice


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Blood chemistry tests of B-hPD-1/hPD-L1/hTNFR2 mice. Serum from C57BL/6 and B-hPD-1/hPD-L1/hTNFR2 mice (n=5, 6 week-old, female) were collected and analyzed for levels of ALT, AST and other indicators in the panel. There was no differences on either measurement between C57BL/6 and humanized mouse, indicating that humanized mouse does not change ALT and AST levels or health of liver. Values are expressed as mean ± SEM.


Combination therapy of anti-human PD-1 and anti-human TNFR2 antibody


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Anti-tumor activity of anti-human PD-1 antibody combined with anti-human TNFR2 antibody in B-hPD-1/hPD-L1/hTNFR2 mice. (A) Anti-human PD-1 antibody combined with anti-human TNFR2 antibody inhibited MC38 tumor growth B-hPD-1/hPD-L1/hTNFR2 mice. All antibodies used in the experiments were prepared in-house. Murine colon cancer MC38 cells were subcutaneously implanted into homozygous B-hPD-1/hPD-L1/hTNFR2 mice (female, 6-7-week-old, n=5). Mice were grouped when tumor volume reached approximately 100 mm3, at which time they were treated with human PD-1 antibody and human hTNFR2 antibodies (in house) with doses and schedules indicated in panel A. (B) Body weight changes during treatment. As shown in panel A, combination of PD-1 and hTNFR2 antibodies shows more inhibitory effects than individual groups, demonstrating that B-hPD-1/hPD-L1/hTNFR2 mice provide a powerful preclinical model for in vivo evaluating combination therapy efficacy of  hTNFR2 antibodies and hPD-1 antibodies. Values are expressed as mean ± SEM.